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Chicago style referencing

This is a brief guide based on The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition.

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At a glance

The Chicago Manual of Style describes two types of referencing styles. This guide is based on the Notes and Bibliography style (chapter 14).

In this style, references are cited both in the footnotes of each page and in a reference list at the end of the document.

More information on this style can be found in The Chicago Manual of Style, available from the Main Library at Z 253 .U69 2010.

Throughout the guide, 'See' will refer you to the section of The Chicago Manual of Style in discussion.

  • Throughout the text, numbered markers indicate a reference.
  • Numbered markers are written consecutively, starting at 1 and set in superscript.
  • The corresponding bibliographic details are then placed in notes at the bottom of the page (footnotes).
  • In-text note number are placed at the end of the sentence or after some other punctuation, such as a comma or parenthesis.
  • After the first citation, a shortened form of the citation may be used in subsequent notes.
    This is designed to reduce the bulk of the document. To create a shortened citation, use the surname of the author and the main title of the work, shortened if longer than four words. See 14.24.
  • “Ibid.” may be used to refer to the source in the footnote immediately preceding. For example

6. Petrie, Greek History and Antiquities, 7.

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid., 11-12.

  • Examples of how to format notes are shown in the sections to the right.

See chapter 14 of The Chicago Manual of Style for more detailed examples.

  • A bibliography may be included at the end of the text, listing all references included in the text.
    See 14.59.
  • The formatting of the bibliography differs slightly to the notes. The main differences are:
    • The name of the first author is inverted to Last name, First name, in order to alphabetise
      the list.
    • The specific page number references will be removed, except in the case of a chapter
      in an edited book. See 14.56.
  • Examples of how to format notes are shown in the sections to the right.

See chapter 14 of The Chicago Manual of Style for more detailed examples.

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