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Bond Vancouver referencing

This guide will help you discover how to reference a source in the Bond Vancouver style.

Vancouver basics


  • A consecutive number is allocated to each source as it is referred to for the first time, and is then used for that source every time it is referred to subsequently.
  • Use superscript numbers without brackets.
  • Place in-text references outside of full stops and commas, but inside of colons and semi-colons.
it was found by Smith1 that 
sustain intravascular volume for longer durations.2-4
inexpensive and readily available,5 while other preparations are

Including page numbers

  • Including page numbers is helpful for direct quotes, or if you wish to cite a specific page of a source. Use brackets only around the page numbers.
  • For EndNote add these details into the suffix of the Word in-text citation, eg. (p21) or (pp3,5).
stated that "the findings require replication to determine clinical utility"2(p21) 
Westman5(pp3,5),9 reported 8 cases in which vomiting occurred

Multiple citations

  • ​When citing multiple references at a given place in your paper, separate these with commas. A hyphen is used where more than two references are consecutive. No spacing is used for in-text citations.
as reported previously2,3
The derived data were as follows2-4,7

Using author names

  • If naming the author(s) as part of your citation, use only the surname. For a 2-author citation list both. For more than 2 use et al.
Doe and Roe3 noted that
Johnson et al3 reported that

A numbered list at the end of the text provides full details for each corresponding in-text reference. For example:


  1. Hoppert M. Microscopic Techniques in Biotechnology. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH; 2003.
  2. Drummond P. Triggers of motion sickness in migraine sufferers. Headache. 2005;45(6):656-656. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2005.05132.x.
  3. Gallen I, ed. Type 1 Diabetes: Clinical Management of the Athlete. London: Springer; 2012.
  4. Gappmaier E, Tavazoie SF, Jacketta MG. Cardiorespiratory response to exercise on a large therapeutic roll. Cardiopulm Phys Ther J. 2013;24(3):5-13.
  5. CMS proposals to implement certain disclosure provisions of the Affordable Care Act. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Web site. Updated December 14, 2011. Accessed January 30, 2012.
  6. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-686. doi:10.1161/01.hyp.0000035706.28494.09.


A secondary citation is where you cite something that someone else has cited, and you have not seen the original work. It is always preferable to read and cite the original work, and every effort should be made to obtain it.

However, if it cannot be obtained:

  • In the text of your paper, cite the original source, rather than the secondary source. So, if Smith has cited Jones, but you have not seen the work by Jones:
Jones et al1 reported that the statistical analysis suggested that


And in the reference list, include the work by Smith at the end of the work by Jones:

1. Jones DM, Kaufer H, Hartford JM. Intraoperative frozen section analysis in revision total joint arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2002;(401):230-238. doi:10.1007/s11999-013-2843-8. Cited by: Smith NC, Lewis RJ, Pearn JH, et al. Arthroplasty in Australia: occurrence and clinical management. Med J Aust. 1986;145(11-12):584-590. Accessed September 18, 2013.


  • If you are referencing a quotation from the original source in the secondary source, replace 'Cited by:' with 'Quoted by:' in the reference list entry
  • EndNote cannot format these secondary citations. You will need to type them manually into your document

The following abbreviations may be used in your citations.

Abbreviation Description
ed edition
et al and others
No number (series)
p page/pages (book)
Pt part
rev revised
Suppl supplement
Vol volume (book)

Journal names are abbreviated. Visit the Journal articles page in this guide for detailed information.

Jurisdictions are abbreviated for legal materials. Visit the More examples page in this guide for more information.

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