The IKAT has two components: a decision tree, and a citation guide. Before deciding how to attribute Indigenous knowledges in sources, it is important to consider whether the sources are appropriate and therefore the decision tree should be used first, followed by the citation guide. Examples are provided in author-date style using APA style, however the referencing components can be applied to any citation style. The IKAT decision tree prompts students to think critically about the source content and authorship. It also recognises that there will be times when students will still need to use problematic sources. In this circumstance, students have an opportunity to rectify the erasure of Indigenous knowledge ownership by using the IKAT citation guide. The IKAT highlights the importance of considering one's relationship to the Indigenous knowledges drawn upon in the research being undertaken. This two-step process encourages best practice in authorship, from undergraduate assignments to peer-reviewed journal articles and industry reports.
The following information has been provided by CAVAL & the Indigenous Archives Collective. CC BY-NC-SA:
Indigenous authored / co-authored publications that include Country/Language group affiliation
Include attribution of the author/s affiliated Nation, Country or Language group, in both the in-text and reference list, if that information is provided within the source being cited. Avoid assuming a person’s affiliation if not stated clearly.
In an Australian context, a number of protocols have been developed to guide library and information work to respect Indigenous knowledges and intellectual property. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Library and Information Resource Network (ATSILIRN) Protocols for Libraries, Archives and Information Services (ATSILIRN, 2015) and the University of Sydney Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultural Protocols (Sentance & University of Sydney Library, 2021) being examples of these. In addition, the True Tracks principles developed by Terri Janke offer support for Indigenous peoples’ control of their cultural heritage with the concept of ICIP rights. Ten principles underpin the model, and all are viewed as being interrelated and embedded in meaningful relationships and connections (Janke, 2021, p. 15). They include: 1) Respect, 2) Self-determination, 3) Consent and Consultation, 4) Interpretation, 5) Integrity, 6) Secrecy and Privacy, 7) Attribution, 8) Benefit Sharing, 9) Maintaining Indigenous Cultures, and 10) Recognition and Protection.
Indigenous Archives Collective; Faulkhead, S; Thorpe, K; Sentance, N; Booker, L; & R Barrowcliffe. (2023) Indigenous Referencing Guidance for Indigenous Knowledges. Indigenous Archives Collective and the UTS Jumbunna Institute of Indigenous Education and Research.
A. Author (Country/Nation, Language group, Place of Nation/ Country, personal communication, Month Day, Year)
E. Timbery (Bidjial/Eora, La Perouse, NSW, Australia, personal communication, April 23, 2015)
(E. Timbery, Bidjial/Eora, La Perouse, NSW, Australia, personal communication, April 23, 2015)
Example: … in recent indigenous artworks (E. Timbery, Bidjial/Eora, La Perouse, NSW, Australia, personal communication, April 23, 2015).
Reference List: Personal communication does not require a matching entry in the reference list.
• Can replace “personal communication” with “yarn” if appropriate. For example, if using a yarning methodology
• If you are yourself an Indigenous person and are sharing your own experiences, you do not need to provide any form of citation (either in-text or in the reference list). However, you should describe yourself in the text to contextualise the information you are sharing (this would include what nation you belong to and where you live).
This guide was compiled using the UTS Library guide to referencing Indigenous material by Danièle Hromek & Sophie Herbert - licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International License.
Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Title [Medium]. Nation/Country, Language group, Place of Nation/Country. Source. URL
George and Cooper (2018)
(George & Cooper, 2018) Example: George and Cooper (2018) use colour to …
George, W., & Cooper, T. (2018). Piltati and Malara: A story of love and war [Painting]. APY Lands, South Australia. Hazelhurst Gallery, Gymea, NSW, Australia. https://www.sutherlandshire.nsw.gov.au/Community/Hazelhurst/ Exhibitions/Weapons-For-The-Soldier
Tips: • If the author is not known, use “Unrecorded” in place of the author.
Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Title [Medium]. Nation/Country, Language group, Place of Nation/Country (Author A); Nation/ Country, Language group, Place of Nation/Country (Author B). Source. URL
Timbery and Jones (2015)
(Timbery & Jones, 2015)
Example: Timbery and Jones (2015) is an example of …
Reference List: Timbery, E., & Jones, J. (2015). Shell Wall [Installation]. Bidjigal/Eora, La Perouse, NSW, Australia (Timbery); Wiradjuri/Kamilaroi, NSW, Australia (Jones). Barangaroo Delivery Authority, Sydney, NSW, Australia. https://www. barangaroo.com/the-project/arts-and-public-program/shell-wall-2015-byesme-timbery-and-jonathan-jones/
Tips: • If there are multiple Indigenous creators from different places, include the surname of the relevant author in brackets after their country/language information.
Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Title [Medium]. Nation/Country, Language group, Place of Nation/Country (Author A). Source. URL
Jagamara and Tillers (2017)
(Jagamara & Tillers, 2017) Example: … can be seen in the artwork by Jagamara and Tillers (2017).
Reference List: Jagamara, M. N., & Tillers, I. (2017). Metafisica Australe 2017 [Painting]. Warlpiri/ Luritja, Papunya region, Northern Territory, Australia (Jagamara). Queensland Art Gallery of Modern Art (QAGOMA), Brisbane, Qld, Australia. https://blog. qagoma.qld.gov.au/michael-nelson-jagamara-imants-tillers-metafisicaaustrale/
Tips: • If the work is a collaboration between Indigenous and non-Indigenous creators, include the surname of the relevant indigenous author(s) in brackets after their country and language information.
Use culturally appropriate and respectful language when writing with, for or about First Nations Australians.
You should capitalise most terms that are associated with Indigenous peoples; this includes names of specific groups, languages, and words related to indigenous culture (E.g. Creation, the Creator, Oral Tradition, Traditional Knowledge, etc.).
The Australian Government Style Manual contains updated information on inclusive language. It is important to use language that is culturally appropriate and respectful of the diversity of Australia's peoples
Author, A. (Year). Title [Medium]. Nation/Country, Language group, Place of Nation/Country. Source. URL
(Whiskey, 2018) Example: … as seen in Whiskey (2018).
Reference List: Whiskey, K. (2018). Kaylene TV [Painting]. Indulkana, APY Lands, South Australia. Art Gallery of NSW, Sydney, NSW, Australia. https://www.artgallery.nsw.gov.au/ prizes/sulman/2018/29987/
Author, A. (Year). Title [Medium]. Nation/Country, Language group, Place of Nation/ Country. Museum name, Museum location.
Example: Campbell (1988) demonstrates this through …
Reference List: Campbell, R., Jr. (1988). Abo history (facts) [Painting]. Ngaku people, Kempsey, NSW, Australia. National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
• If the author is not known, use “Unrecorded” in place of the author.
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