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In-text citations

  • Sources are numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear within the text.
  • Once numbered, a source retains the assigned citation number within the document.


Use superscript numbers without brackets, e.g. 1
Place citation numbers outside full stops and commas, e.g. …as previously reported,3,4… …the largest study included 12 participants.5
Place citation numbers inside colons and semi-colons, e.g. The results were as follows19:

When mentioning authors by name within the text:

  • Citation numbers may be placed directly after the author's names, e.g. Smith1 explains…
  • If the source has one or two authors, include both surnames, e.g.  Koe and Poe2 report an increase in….
  • If the source has three or more authors, list the first author’s surname, followed by ‘et al’, e.g.  Moe et al7 reported...

Multiple citations

Separate multiple citations with a comma and use a hyphen where more than two consecutively numbered sources are cited. Citation numbers are entered without spaces, e.g. …as previously reported2,3,17-21… …some challenges faced by the community2-4,7

Page numbers

Including page numbers are helpful for direct quotations or if referring to the same source multiple times within the text. Enclose the page numbers within brackets, along with a single ‘p’ for a single page number or two ‘p’s for multiple pages, without spaces, e.g. 1(p21) or 1(pp3,5).

For EndNote insert the citation, right-click the citation, select edit citation, then more. Add the page numbers into the suffix field, along with the brackets and either ‘p’ or ‘pp’, e.g. (p21) or (pp3,5).

Secondary citations

A secondary citation is created when an author is cited from within another authors' work.
Finding and citing the original source is always preferable. See the section on 'secondary citations' within this guide for information on constructing secondary citations.

Vancouver (AMA 11th) referencing