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Australian Guide to Legal Citation

This guide will help you understand how to reference in the AGLC style

Secondary sources

Note about secondary sources

If you can not find a specific rule in the AGLC to match the secondary source you are citing, find the closest rule and adapt it, making sure to follow the 'general rules'.

General rules, journals and books

Chapter 4: General rules for citing secondary sources, See 4
Authors, See 4.1
  • Authors' and editors' names should appear as they do on the title page of the source, except:
    • Don't put spaces or full stops for initials in names
    • Don't normally include author qualifications or honorific titles such as LLB, Dr or Professor. However, there are several titles you do include, See 4.1.1
  • Where a source has two or three authors, include the names of all, separating the last two with the word 'and', See 4.1.2
  • Where a source has four or more authors, only name the first listed author and then put 'et al', See 4.1.2
  • Where a source has editors instead of authors, the same format applies except you add '(ed)' or '(eds)' for one or more editors respectively, See 4.1.3
  • Where an author is a body such as a company, organisation or government department, list that body as the author, See 4.1.4
  • Where no author is credited (whether person or body), leave this field out, See 4.1.4
Title, See 4.2
  • Titles should appear as they do in the source, except:
    • Do not include full stops in a title, follow the punctuation rule, See 1.6
    • Use title case. That is, all words in a title should be capitalised except for articles, conjunctions and prepositions (eg 'the', 'a', 'and', 'with', 'in'), See 1.7
    • Use a colon ':' to separate a title and subtitle
    • Where a source has multiple subtitles, only include the first subtitle
Uniform Resource Locator ('URL'), See 4.4
  • A URL can be included at the end of a citation to a secondary source to aid its retrieval
  • When including a URL, place it at the end of the citation in point brackets '<>', but before the short title (if used) and the full stop
  • Where an included URL is long and runs over multiple lines, you may use the URL of the general website or the website's 'Home page'
Chapter 5: Journal Articles, See 5
  • The article title appears in single quotation marks, not italics, See 5.2
  • In journals organised by volume number, the year appears in round brackets. Where journals are organised by year (does not have a volume number - may have issue numbers but these reset every year), the year appears in square brackets, See 5.3
  • Include both the volume and issue number. Where an issue is a month or a season, include this as you would a number, See 5.4
  • Place the name of the journal in italics. Do not abbreviate the title of the journal. 'The' should not be included at the start of a journal title, See 5.5
  • The starting page of a journal article forms part of the citation and is separate from the pinpoint, See 5.6
  • Pinpoints in journal articles will generally be to pages, See 5.7
  • Articles published in online journals may not always include a volume, issue or starting page. In online articles the most appropriate form of pinpointing should be used, See 5.10
  • Where citing a forthcoming article (not yet published), replace the starting page number with the word '(forthcoming)', or '(advance') for an article available as an advance. Where not all information (such as volume or issue) is available, provide as much information as you can, See 5.11
Journal article organised by volume
Author, | 'Title' | (Year) | Volume(Issue) | Journal | Starting page number, | Pinpoint.


Journal article organised by year
Author, | 'Title' | [Year] | (Issue) | Journal | Starting page number, | Pinpoint.

Jackson Walkden-Brown, 'Digesting Discourse: How Animal Law Facilitates High Quality Legal Education' (2017) 27(1) Legal Education Review 261.

Narelle Bedford and Monica Taylor, 'Model No More: Querulent Behaviour, Vexatious Litigants and the Vexatious Proceedings Act 2005 (Qld)' (2014) 24(1) Journal of Judicial Administration 46.

Dan Jerker B Svantesson and William Van Caenegem, 'Is it Time for an Offence of "Dishonest Algorithmic Manipulation for Electoral Gain"?' (2017) 42(3) Alternative Law Journal 184.

Alison Vivian et al, 'Indigenous Self-Government in the Australian Federation' (2017) 20(1) Australian Indigenous Law Review 215.

Michael Kirby, 'Judicial Independence and Accountability: An Asia-Pacific Perspective' [2009] (1) LAWASIA Journal 1.

Martin Loughlin, 'Theory and Values in Public Law: An Interpretation' [2005] (Spring) Public Law 48.

Paul Kenny, Michael Blissenden and Sylvia Villios, 'Wine Options of Australian Tax Reform' (2017) 15(1) eJournal of Tax Research 22.

Chapter 6: Books, See 6
  • Place the book's title in italicsSee 6.2
  • Leave out 'The' at the start of a publisher's name. Leave out corporate status abbreviations such as 'Pty', 'Ltd', and 'Co'See 6.3.1
  • Leave the edition number out if the book does not have one, See 6.3.2
  • Pinpoint references are usually to pages, or pages and paragraphs. You may pinpoint to chapters, parts, or other relevant labelled designations of a bookSee 6.4
  • Where a book contains more than one volume, place 'vol' and the volume number after the publication details, outside of the brackets, See 6.5
  • Where citing a forthcoming book (not yet published), replace the year with the word 'forthcoming', See 6.8
Author, | Title | (Publisher, | Edition, | Year) | Pinpoint.



Denis Ong, Trusts Law in Australia (Federation Press, 5th ed, 2018).

GE Dal Pont, Equity and Trusts: Commentary and Materials (Lawbook, 7th ed, 2019).

Laurence Boulle and Rachael Field, Mediation in Australia (LexisNexis Buttersworths, 2018).

Nickolas James et al, Business and Company Law (Wiley, 1st ed, 2017).

Ulrich Haas and Deborah Healey (eds), Doping in Sport and the Law (Hart, 2016).


Pinpoint Examples

Nickolas James et al, Business and Company Law (Wiley, 1st ed, 2017) 26. [pinpointing to a page]

Denis Ong, Trusts Law in Australia (Federation Press, 5th ed, 2018) 71–3. [pinpointing to a page range]

GE Dal Pont, Equity and Trusts: Commentary and Materials (Lawbook, 7th ed, 2019) 139 [4.180]. [pinpointing to a page and paragraph]

Laurence Boulle and Rachael Field, Mediation in Australia (LexisNexis Buttersworths, 2018) ch 7. [pinpointing to an entire chapter]


Chapter in an edited book, See 6.6.1
Chapter Author, | ' Chapter Title' | in Editor (ed/s), | Title | (Publisher, | Edition, | Year) | Starting page of chapter, | Pinpoint.



Alan Sullivan, 'The World Anti-Doping Code and Contract Law' in Ulrich Haas and Deborah Healey (eds), Doping in Sport and the Law (Hart, 2016) 61. [no pinpoint]

Alan Sullivan, 'The World Anti-Doping Code and Contract Law' in Ulrich Haas and Deborah Healey (eds), Doping in Sport and the Law (Hart, 2016) 61, 62. [pinpoint]